The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York, holds important primary materials on the history of the UNIA in New York in its archives, including the surviving records of the UNIA Central Division. Fisk University, Nashville, houses the Amy Jacques Garvey and Marcus Garvey Memorial collections. The National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C., is also an important repository of materials about the Garvey movement.
Documentary compilations of the work of Marcus Garvey include The Black Man: A Monthly Magazine of Negro Thought and Opinion, edited by Robert A. Hill (Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus-Thomson, 1975) and More Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, edited by E. U. Essien-Udom and Amy Jacques Garvey (London: Frank Cass and Co., 1977). Tony Martin has compiled The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983); Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983); and Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1986).
The following sources provide useful information on Garvey, Garveyism, and Africa: Ian Duffield, "Duse Mohamed Ali: An Example of the Economic Dimension of Pan-Africanism," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 4, no. 4 (1969): 571-600; J. Ayodele Langley, "Chief Sam's African Movement and Race Consciousness in West Africa," Phylon 32, no. 2 (summer 1971): 164-178; Ian Duffield, "Duse Mohamed Ali and the Development of Pan-Africanism, 1866-1945," (Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1971); J. Ayodele Langley, Pan-Africanism and Nationalism in West Africa, 1900-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), p. 270; Robert Edgar, "Garveyism in Africa: Dr. Wellington and the American Movement in the Transkei," Ufahamu 6, no. 3 (1976): 31-57; S. K. B. Asante, Pan-African Protest: West Africa and the Italo-Ethiopian Crisis, 1934-1941 (London: Longman, 1977); Rina L. Okonkwo, "The Garvey Movement in British West Africa," Journal of African History 21, no. 1 (1980): 105-117; G. O. Olusanya, The West African Students Union and the Politics of Decolonization, 1925-1958 (Ibadan: Daystar Press, 1982); Robert A. Hill, "Before Garvey: Chief Alfred Sam and the African Movement, 1912-1916," in Pan-African Biography, ed. Robert A. Hill (Los Angeles: African Studies Center/Crossroads Press, 1984); Rina L. Okonkwo, Heroes of West African Nationalism (Enugu, Nigeria: Delta Publishers, 1985); Robert A. Hill, and Gregory A. Pirio, "'Africa for the Africans': The Garvey Movement in South Africa, 1920-1940," in The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa, ed. Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido (London: Longman, 1987); George M. Fredrickson, Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United States and South Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Alberto Sbacchi, Legacy of bitterness: Ethiopia and fascist Italy, 1935-1941 (Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press, c. 1997).
The most comprehensive documentary edition of primary documents on Garvey
and the Garvey movement is the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement
Papers, published by the University of California Press and produced
by the Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers project, African Studies Center, University
of California, Los Angeles. It will eventually include volumes dealing
with the impact of Garvey and the UNIA in North America, Latin America,
the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa.
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This page updated 9 October 2000 by firstname.lastname@example.org