] Lourenço Marques was the capital and major port of colonial Mozambique, located at the colony's southern tip, sixty miles from the South African border. Virtually all the major sectors of its economy were controlled by British and South African capital. Between the wars, African political activity became far more intense in Lourenço Marques than in any other Mozambican city. As early as 1911, Francisco Domingos Campos and others attempted to organize the União Africana for all Africans working there. During the second decade of this century, there were also a number of sporadic strikes and work stoppages. Railway and port workers were probably the best-organized and most militant segment of the nascent African working class. They participated in strikes in 1917, 1919, 1925, and again in 1931. At the same time, leading mulatto and black families belonging to the Grêmio Africano voiced their opposition to racial oppression, social discrimination, and the cultural arrogance of the Portuguese settler community. Through the Grêmio's newspapers, Africano
and its successor, O Brado Africano
, they also protested against forced labor and other injustices inflicted by the colonial regime (Gregory A. Pirio, "Race and Class in the Struggle over Pan-Africanism" [paper presented at conference at University of Minnesota, 25 May 1983], pp. 5–11; Penvenne, "A History of African Labor," pp. 334–390; Elaine Friedland, "Mozambican Nationalist Resistance, 1920–1949," Afrika Zamani
[Yaoundé] 8 : 160–164; Eduardo dos Santos, Pan-africanismo de ontem e de hoje
[Lisbon: published by the author, 1968]; Allen Isaacman and Barbara Isaacman, Mozambique: From Colonialism to Revolution, 1900 – 1982
[Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1983], pp. 69–78).