] The Trinidad Working Men's Association (TWMA) called a strike of stevedores, lightermen, and warehousemen at Port of Spain on 14 November 1919. Garveyites played a prominent role in the strike, especially John Sydney de Bourg, a founder of the TWMA and a leader of its radical faction. The Negro World
had already been unofficially banned in Trinidad. However, after the strike, when the ban was made official, speakers at TWMA meetings continued to read "verbatim quotations from the 'Negro World' and the writings of Marcus Garvey" (J. R. Chancellor, governor of Trinidad, to Milner, 30 November 1920, PRO, CO 318/356). The workers struck for higher wages and a shorter workday. Government opposition to the TWMA had blocked official recognition, and local shipping interests showed no disposition to negotiate, so workers from the countryside of Trinidad and from Venezuela were brought in to replace the strikers. Rioting began on 1 December, when strikers and their supporters entered the shipping warehouses that employed strikebreakers, forcing them to close down; afterward, they marched through the city's business district, closing shops and disrupting public transportation. Thousands of people who were not involved in the original strike participated in the three days of disturbances, which became a popular manifestation of discontent with colonial rule. Fearing a general uprising, Governor John Chancellor created a conciliation board consisting of TWMA representatives, the shipping agents, and the government. The authorities were also concerned during the rioting with the loyalty of the local police, who were mostly black and who "appeared to have looked on and laughed" unless they were given direct orders to act by white officers (Henry D. Baker, American consul, "Rioting in Trinidad," DNA, RG 59, file 844 G. 5045–3). The report of the special commission of inquiry, however, generally commended the police for their loyalty. On 3 December, the shipping agents and the representatives of the TWMA agreed to a 25 percent wage increase. Although the crisis had subsided, rioting continued to spread through rural Trinidad ("Disturbances in Port of Spain: Reports by the Commissioners Appointed to Enquire into the Conduct of the Constabulary," PRO, CO 318; W. F. Elkins, "Black Power in the British West Indies: The Trinidad Longshoremen's Strike of 1919," Science and Society
33 [winter 1969]: 71–75; Tony Martin, "Revolutionary Upheaval in Trinidad, 1919: Views from British and American Sources," JNH
58, no. 3 [July 1973]: 313–326).