The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers


Editorial Principles and Practices


I. Arrangement of Documents

Documents are presented in chronological order according to the dates of authorship of the original texts. Enclosures and attachments to documents, however, appear with their original covering documents. The publication dates of news reports, speeches, and periodical articles are given on the place and date lines within square brackets; dates of original composition or delivery, however, if available, chronologically supersede the dates of publication and are printed within double square brackets on the document’s place and date lines.
Investigative or intelligence reports that give both the dates of composition and the periods covered by the reports are arranged according to the dates of composition.
Documents that lack dates and thus require editorial assignment of dates are placed in normal chronological sequence. When no day within a month appears on a document, the document is placed after the last document specifically dated within that month. Documents that carry only the date of a year are placed according to the same principle. Documents that cover substantial periods, such as diaries, journals, and accounts, appear according to the dates of their earliest entries.
When two or more documents possess the same date, they are arranged with regard to affinity with the subject of the document that immediately precedes them or that which immediately follows them.

II. Form of Presentation

Each document is presented in the following manner:
A. A caption introduces the document and is printed in a type size larger than the text. Letters between individuals are captioned with the names of the individuals and their titles, which are included only on first appearances. When the title but not the name of a document’s author is known, the title alone is given. The original titles of published materials are retained with the documents; however, the headlines of some news reports are abridged or omitted as indicated in the descriptive source notes.
B. The text of a document follows the caption. The copy text of letters or reports is taken from recipients’ copies whenever possible, but in the absence of a recipient’s copy, a file copy of the letter or report is used. If the file copy is not available, however, and a retained draft copy of the letter is found, the retained draft copy is used as the basic text. File copies are referred to as copies or carbon copies in descriptive source notes.
C. An unnumbered descriptive source note follows the body of each text. The descriptive source note describes the physical character of the document by means of appropriate abbreviations, such as TLS (typed letter signed). A repository symbol indicates the provenance of the original manuscript or, if it is rare, printed work.
Printed sources are identified in the following manners:
1. A contemporary pamphlet is identified by its full title, place and date of publication, and the location of the copy used.
2. A contemporary article, essay, letter, or other kind of statement that appeared originally in a contemporary publication is preceded by the words “Printed in . . . ,” followed by the title, date, and, in the case of essays in magazines and journals, inclusive page numbers of the source of publication.
3. A contemporary printed source reprinted at a later date, the original publication of which has not been found, is identified with the words “Reproduced from . . . ,” followed by the identification of the work from which the text has been reproduced in the volumes. Articles originally printed in African newspapers and reprinted in the Negro World, the originals of which have not been found, are identified in captions as coming from the African paper, with the Negro World source given in the descriptive source note.
Information on the special character or provenance of a document is also explained in the descriptive source note, as is any editorial intervention or elision regarding a document, such as “text abridged” or “headlines omitted.”
D. Numbered textual annotations that elucidate the document follow the descriptive source note.
E. The following principles of textual annotation apply:
1. Individuals, organizations, and historical events are identified upon their first mention in the volumes, with additional information about them sometimes furnished upon their later appearance where such data provide maximum clarification. Pseudonyms are identified, wherever possible, by textual annotations.
2. Elided material has in general been annotated, except in instances, such as diaries and some speeches, where it is clearly extraneous.
3. Reasons for the assignment of dates to documents or the correction of document dates are explained in instances where important historical information is involved.
4. Obscure allusions and literary or biblical references in the text are annotated whenever such references can be clarified or their source identified. Common or frequently cited biblical references are not annotated.
5. Published and manuscript materials consulted during the preparation of textual annotations appear in parentheses at the end of each annotation, except when they are cited directly, in which case reference immediately follows the quotation. Research correspondence conducted by Garvey Papers project staff members is cited in annotations. Frequently used reference works are cited in abbreviated forms.

III. Transcription of Text

Manuscripts and printed material have been transcribed from original texts and printed as documents according to the following principles and procedures:

A. Manuscript Material

1. The place and date of composition are placed at the head of the document, regardless of their location in the original. If the place or date of a manuscript (or both) does not appear in the original text, the information is editorially supplied and printed within square brackets, in roman type if certain, in italics if uncertain or conjectural. Likewise, if either the place or date is incomplete, the necessary additional information is editorially supplied within square brackets. Original superscript letters are brought down to the line of type, and terminal punctuation is deleted.
2. In colonial government reports, investigative or intelligence reports, and other reports that were submitted on printed forms, the place and date are abstracted and placed at the head of each document, while the name of the reporting agent or government official, when available, is placed at the end of the document on the signature line.
3. The signature, which is set in capitals and small capitals, is placed at the right-hand margin on the line beneath the text or complimentary close, with titles, where they appear, set in uppercase and lowercase on the line below. Terminal punctuation is deleted.
4. When a file copy of a document bearing no signature is used to establish the text but the signatory is known, the signature is printed in roman type within square brackets.
5. The inside address, or address printed on letterhead or other official stationery, is printed immediately below the text if historically significant and not repetitive.
6. Endorsements, dockets, and other markings appearing on official correspondence, when intelligible, are reproduced in small type following the address, with appropriate identification. In the case of other types of documents, such as private correspondence, endorsements and dockets are printed only when they are significant. Printed letterheads and other official stationery are not reproduced. They are sometimes briefly described in the descriptive source note or, if they contain lengthy or detailed information, in an annotation.
7. Minutes, enclosures, and attachments are printed immediately following their covering documents. Whenever they are not printed, this fact is recorded and explained. Whenever a transmission letter originally accompanying an enclosure or attachment is not printed, the omission is noted and the transmission document identified and recorded in the descriptive source note.
8. Proper names that are spelled erratically in the original text are regularized or corrected upon their first appearance in a document by printing the correct form in square brackets after the incorrect spelling. In words other than proper names, corrections of spelling irregularities are made within the word and printed within square brackets; however, typographical or spelling errors that contribute to the overall character of documents are retained.
9. Capitalization is retained as in the original. Words underlined once in a manuscript are printed in italics. Words that are underlined twice or spelled out in large letters or full capitals are printed in small capitals.
10. Punctuation, grammar, and syntax are retained as found in the original texts. Punctuation corrections that are essential to the accurate reading of the text are provided within square brackets. If, however, a punctuation mark appears in a document as a result of typographical error, it is corrected in square brackets or silently deleted.
11. All contractions and abbreviations in the text are retained. Persons represented in the text by initials only have their full names spelled out in square brackets after each initial on their first appearance, if we have been able to identify them. If we haven’t, this fact is noted in a textual annotation.
12. Superscript letters in the text are lowered and aligned on the line of print.
13. Omissions, mutilations, and illegible words or letters are rendered through the use of the following textual devices:
a) Blank spaces in a manuscript are shown as [ ]. If the blank space is of significance or of substantial length, this fact is elaborated upon in a textual annotation.
b) When a word or words in the original text must be omitted from the printed document because of mutilation, illegibility, or omission, the omission is shown by editorial comment, such as: [torn], [illegible], [remainder missing].
c) Missing items are restored in the printed document within square brackets. A question mark following the restoration indicates that it is uncertain or conjectural.
14. Additions and corrections made by the author in the original text are rendered as follows:
a) Additions between the lines, or autograph insertions in a typewritten document, are brought onto the line of type and incorporated into the body of the text within diagonal lines / /.
b) Marginal additions or corrections by the author are also incorporated into the printed document and identified by the words [in the margin] italicized in square brackets. Marginal notes made by someone other than the author are treated as endorsements and printed after the text of the document.
c) Text deleted or altered in the original, as in a draft, is restored and indicated by canceled type at the place where the deletion or alteration occurs in the original text. If a lengthy deletion is illegible, this is indicated by the words [deletion illegible].
15. When texts have been translated from other languages, capitalization and punctuation have generally been changed to reflect English usage. Foreign-language titles of organizations have been kept in their original language. A concentrated effort has been made to render the spirit as well as the letter of the original, with particular attention paid to tone, style, and level of language proficiency, since such matters can convey a number of historically relevant meanings.

B. Printed Material

Contemporary printed material is treated in the same manner as original texts and is transcribed according to the same editorial principles as manuscript material. When the same article, or versions of the same article, appear in both an African and a non-African newspaper or magazine, the copy text is taken from the African source, when available, with the non-African source, as well as any differences between the two versions, described in the descriptive source note. However, if the non-African version was published before the African, the non-African version is the copy text used.
1. In the case of published letters, the place and date of composition are uniformly printed on the place and date line of the document, regardless of where they appear in the original, and placed within double square brackets. Elements that are editorially supplied are italicized.
2. Newspaper headlines and subheads are printed in capital and small capital letters. Headlines are punctuated as they are in the original, but terminal punctuation is deleted, and they are reproduced in the printed document in as few lines as possible. If they are editorially abridged, this is indicated in the descriptive source note.
3. Original small capitals are retained.
4. Signatures accompanying published letters are printed in capitals and small capitals.
5. Obvious typographical errors and errors of punctuation, such as the omission of a single parenthesis or quotation mark, are corrected and printed in roman type within square brackets. Typographical idiosyncrasies that reflect the page design of a magazine or newspaper article, such as the capitalization of the first word or words of an article, are silently regularized.
6. In the case of a printed form with spaces to be filled in, spaces are indicated as in the original with the use of hairline rules. Handwritten or typewritten insertions are printed within diagonal lines / /.

IV. Textual Devices


[roman] Editorial restoration of missing, mutilated, or illegible text. Correction of typographical errors in original manuscript or printed document. A question mark following the restoration or correction indicates that it is uncertain or conjectural. Also used to indicate known place and/or date of publication of a news report or periodical article, or known place and/or date of composition of a manuscript when the place and/or date is not given in the manuscript; or to identify unnamed individuals alluded to in text, or known signatory of a manuscript the text of which has been established on the basis of an unsigned file copy. When preceded by in the margin in italics, indicates marginalia brought into the line of type.
[italic] Editorially assigned date and/or place of any document whose date and/or place of publication or composition is uncertain or conjectural. Editorial comment inserted in the text, such as [endorsement], [remainder missing], [torn], [enclosure], [attachment], [in the margin].
[[roman]] Known date and/or place of composition of a published letter, article, or news report, or delivery date of a speech, if publication date and/or place differs.
[[italic]] Editorially assigned date and/or place of composition of a published letter, article, or news report, or delivery date of a speech, if publication date and/or place differs and date and/or place of composition or delivery is uncertain or conjectural.
/ / Incorporation into the text of an addition or correction made above or below the line by author, or of autograph insertions made in typewritten original.
Canceled Textual matter that is canceled in the original.
[ . . . ] Text editorially abridged.
[ ] Blank space in a document.