Copyright 1999. Esther Katz. All rights reserved.
Ferrer y Guardia, Francisco (1859-1909)
Spanish educational reformer and anarchist who wanted to end illiteracy in Spain through a chain of schools which would educate the masses. He also developed new pedagogical theories that emphasized a child's individuality, intellectual and creative freedom, and the pleasure of learning. He published these ideas in The Modern School
(1900). Many of these principles were embraced by anarchists and other political and cultural radicals in the pre-World War I period. Ferrer was executed by Spanish Monarchists in Barcelona. A school named after Ferrer was founded in New York in 1910 and the Sanger's enrolled their son Stuart
there in 1911.
Sources: Paul Avrich, The Modern School (1980); Robert M. Crunden, American Salons: Encounters with European Modernism, 1885-1917 (1993); Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America (1992).
The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel, 1914-1916, eds. Esther Katz, Cathy Moran Hajo and Peter Engelman
(Columbia, S.C.: Model Editions Partnership, 1999). On the Web at http://mep.blackmesatech.com/mep/ [Accessed 4 January 2018]