The Margaret Sanger Papers


Fitzgerald, (Mary) Eleanor (1877-1955)

Editor and theater director. Wisconsin-born Eleanor Fitzgerald, often called "Fitzi", began her career in as a magazine editor. Committed to radical labor politics, she was a close friend of Emma Goldman and served as secretary and then assistant editor of Mother Earth. Fitzgerald also became Alexander Berkman's lover and in 1915 she joined him in San Francisco as the assistant editor of Berkman's radical labor journal, The Blast. After Berkman and Goldman were arrested for lecturing against conscription in 1917, Fitzgerald raised the $50,000 bail. In 1919 she, Leonard Abbott and Prince Hopkins headed a Political Prisoners' Amnesty League. By 1918, however, she began pursuing another interest when she joined the experimental theater company, the Provincetown Players. After Goldman and Berkman's deportation in 1919, Fitzgerald retreated from political life and became increasingly involved with the Players serving as director, business manager and executive director until the company closed 1929. Between 1940 and 1953, Fitzgerald did public relations work for the Dramatic Workshop at the New School for Social Research.
References: Richard Drinnon, Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman (1961) and Alice Wexler, Emma Goldman: An Intimate Life (1984)