The Margaret Sanger Papers

Rutgers-Hoitsema, Marie (1847-1934)

Dutch feminist, socialist and educator. Married Johannes Rutgers. Rutgers was headmistress at a girls' school in Rotterdam and became deeply involved in organizing help for unmarried mothers. An activist committed to women's rights, she was President of the Society for the Advancement of Women's Interests, which she founded in 1895. She also helped found the Dutch Woman Suffrage Association and an organization aimed at resisting the passage of protective legislation for women workers. As President of the Dutch Neo-Malthusian League (Nieuw Malthusiaansche Bond) from 1900 to 1912, Rutgers-Hoitsema lectured to socialist and anarchist groups on the need for birth control.
References: Audrey Ledbetter, A History of the Malthusian League, 1875-1925 (1976); Aletta Jacobs, Memories, Harriet Feinberg, ed. (1996 translation).